Of the four great ancient civilizations, three have been widely explored and are known to almost everyone: Mesopotamia, Egypt and China.
The fourth civilization, that of the Indus Valley, which flourished in the flooded areas of the Indus and Gaggar Hakra, has been lost in human memory.
Today, compared to other cultures, we know little about this technologically advanced society.
Look at these lesser known facts about the Indus Valley civilization that just deserve to be shared.
There was no sign of a ruler or powerful authority in the entire region, which is a characteristic of the Indus Valley civilization that made this culture unique to scholars.
We know nothing about their control system.
Although there is little evidence that such an orderly and hierarchical community can exist without local or central regulation.
Unlike all civilizations, where the king or the priest was the main figure of the entire political structure, no one has ever found such pictorial references.
The terracotta figure of what a priest should be is the one closest to the figure.
The absence of a building that can be attributed a fundamental importance as a palace or temple is another surprising fact that surprised the researchers.
The appearance of the temple or palace distinguished all other early civilizations.
There are several public toilets and attics, but the palace or temple cannot even be remotely connected to the building.
Many scientists believe that the cities of the Indus Valley are an egalitarian society.
No photographs, evidence or weapons relating to military activities were found in the cities of civilization.
No one has seen such a picture of Harappan’s cities compared to the city-states of Mesopotamia, which were constantly at war and represented it in their artistic and written works.
Little is known about their political and religious structure. We don’t know who or how they worshipped God.
There have been several discussions on the same subject, but it is difficult to say anything.
Mergarch was a small farming town that started before the Harappan period.
It is one of the oldest agricultural and cattle breeding sites in South Asia ever discovered.
The Indus Valley is a Bronze Age civilization stretching from northeastern modern Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwestern India (3300-1300 BC; more mature 2600-1900 BC)
The Indus Basin was once home to one of the largest rivers in Asia and the Gaggar Hakra, which flowed through northwest India and east Pakistan.
Together with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, one of the three earliest civilizations in the world, it was one of the three most widespread.
In 1999 there were more than 1,056 towns and villages, of which 96 were excavated, mainly in the general area and in the Indus and Gaggar Hakra tributaries.
The settlements include the main urban centres of Harappa – Mohenjo Daro, Dholawira, Ganerivala in Cholistan and Rahigari.
It is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
It contains seals in more than 4000 simple rectangular stone slabs.
There are also seals made of at least a dozen other materials.
Seals contain images and inscriptions of humans, divine creatures, etc.
Some seals were used to supply goods with clay, but they were probably used for other purposes.
If the inscriptions have not yet been deciphered, it is difficult to say exactly what the stamps should do.
They found at least 400 different characters in different objects. These characters are usually represented on 3 to 20 lines, although scientists have done their best to avoid interpretation or translation.
This is one of the main reasons why we know so little about this civilization.
Some scientists even wonder whether these symbols should be regarded as writing, since no text with more than 20 symbols has ever been found.
Others think that these signs only refer to names and have no real meaning.
Computer analysis of these scenarios has shown that these symbols are a mixture of sounds and concepts such as the Egyptian hieroglyphs.
However, this remains a mystery, because there are no transmission possibilities.
7. World leader in dentistry
In 2001, archeologists from Mergarh (Pakistan) discovered during their research into the remains of two men that people living in the Indus Valley had been familiar with dentistry since the early Harappa period.
Subsequently, in April 2006, the scientific journal Nature noted that the first evidence of human tooth drilling had appeared at Mergarkh.
At the Neolithic cemetery of Mergara, dated 5500 BC. Chr. – 7000 v. Chr. they found crowns of pierced molars in 9 adults.
The researchers concluded that there is a proto-dental tradition in the early Hindu cultures of the region.
6. The people of Harappan developed the most accurate measurements available to mankind at that time.
The stone cubes are specially designed for weights increasing in the ratio 5:2:1, with weight coefficients of 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500.
Cuba was discovered by archaeologists. At the moment, the weights do not correspond to the systems existing in Egypt or Mesopotamia at that time.
So we can say with certainty that this is a system that was invented locally.
In Lothal, Gujarat, the marks on an ivory scale show that their smallest distribution was about 1,704 mm, the smallest distribution in the history of the Bronze Age.
5. They worshipped Lord Shiva in.
Thousands of tomb seals, amulets, mainly of soapstone, agate, facial features, copper, pottery and terracotta have been found in Harappan.
The famous seal shows a figure in a lotus position and surrounded by animals.
This is the God Pashupati Mahadeva, who is the beloved analogue of the Vedic Lord Shiva in the Indus civilization.
Among other fertile and phallic symbols, the belief that the people of Harappan worshipped the mother goddess is widespread.
The restoration of numerous figurines from almost all excavation sites shows that the cult of the mother goddess or the cult of fertility was widespread and popular in civilization.
4. Revolutionary Home Design
In the civilization of the Indus Valley there were excellent masons who could easily build load-bearing brick structures of up to two storeys.
The houses have a central courtyard and a terrace for apartments on one level.
A well-planned road network and a complex drainage system showed that the inhabitants of the ancient Indus Valley civilization were experienced urban planners who attached great importance to water management.
Archaeologists found wells in the city, and almost every house has a clearly defined swimming area and an internal drainage system.
They also noticed a highly developed water network in Moenjo-Daro with 80 public sanitation facilities and more than 700 wells.
The nursery had its own bathroom and the wells were strategically located to supply all areas with water. There was also a rainwater storage system.
The discovery of the great bath of civilization in the Indus Valley reveals their architectural skills.
2. The greatest civilization of the ancient world
Geographically, the Indus Valley was the largest of the four ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and China.
It covered an area of 1,260,000 square kilometers.
Civilization has spread to modern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
If there were such a large country on the current map, it would be between Niger and Angola, in 22nd place.
This civilization stretched from the Gaggar Hakra Valley in the east and west from Balochistan to Makran, from Afghanistan to Daimabad in Maharashtra in the south.
The civilization of the Indus Valley had a total population of over five million people.
It is larger than the current population of New Zealand as a whole.
Most of his men were craftsmen and merchants. In more than 1056 towns and villages in Harappan, 96 of which were searched.
They are mainly located in large parts of the Indus and Gaggar Hakra rivers and their tributaries.
The main urban centres were Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Dholawira, Ganerivala and Rahigari.
Rahigari is currently the largest known place of civilization in Harappan, India.
This is more than the famous Moenjo-Daro website in Pakistan.
During the excavations in the streets of Moenjo-Daro 44 skeletons were discovered, which were so scattered in the streets that they arrived so suddenly that they could no longer reach their homes.
All bones, including those of the mother and child, still holding hands, are pressed to the ground.
Archaeologists have discovered that all these people have died of violence, but the causes of this violence remain inexplicable.
Lying in a distorted position in layers of scratches, ash and debris.
The sudden decline of the Indus Valley civilization has long been a surprise to explorers.
There is no conclusive evidence that a city in Harappan has ever been burned, submerged, physically attacked or forcibly seized.
Cities have previously changed course after natural disasters or the collapse of rivers such as the Indus and Gahra Hakkar.
This would affect the local agricultural economy and the development of society as a centre of trade.
Thanks to continuous excavations and anthropological work, the disappearance of this mysterious civilization is certainly a mystery.
How did the civilization of the Indus Valley end?
There are six speculative theories –.
- The nearby desert has invaded the fertile area and turned it into a barren area.
- The region has been devastated by frequent flooding.
- The Aryan invaders killed and destroyed the civilization of the Indus Valley. The people of Harappan enjoyed great harmony. They had no weapons to strike or defend themselves against others. They had hunting or farming equipment. So they couldn’t resist the attackers.
- The end was partly caused by a change in the way things were done. These changes include the drainage of the Hakra river and the adaptation of the course of the Indus river. River changes have affected agricultural and economic systems and many people have left the cities in the Indus Valley.
- The devastation was caused by earthquakes and epidemics.
- There is a growing number of alternative archaeologists and scientists who have not accepted the hypotheses that insufficiently explain the state of skeletal remains and have found other explanations. One such person is the British-Indian scholar David Davenport, who studied twelve-year-old Hindu writings and testimonies on the spot where the big city once stood. Nuclear destruction in his book 2000 v. This shows shocking results: The artifacts found in situ appear to have been melted, vitrified by heat at 1500°C, accompanied by rapid cooling of. The city itself seemed to have an epicentre about 50 meters wide, where everything was crystallized, melted or melted away, and 60 meters from the center – the bricks melted on one. In his book Mysteries of Ancient History, Gorbovsky reports that at least one human skeleton has been found in the area at a speed about 50 times greater than that of natural radiation. Davenport stated that what was observed at Moenjo Daro was exactly the same as what was observed at Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
These were the facts of the Indus Valley civilization.
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