This article is about the facts of ancient Mesopotamia.
But before we talk about the facts of this civilization, let’s look at its origins.
The word Mesopotamia is derived from the word meso, which means root expressions in ancient Greek and the river meaning of Potamos.
Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the area between the Euphrates and the Tigris.
The region includes most of modern Iraq, Kuwait and Syria.
It has been home to many of the world’s oldest and most important civilizations, including the Sumerians, Acadians, Assyrians and Babylonians, but we can also consider it one of the earliest civilizations in the world.
Here are the 10 most important facts about Mesopotamia from the study of antiquity:
10. Sumer was the first urban civilization in the history of.
At 3,000 B.C. Chr. Chr. the Sumerians ruled Mesopotamia and played an important role in the history of Mesopotamia.
Sumer had several decentralized city-states, including Erida, Nippur, Lagash, Uruk and Kish.
The most famous city of Sumeria was Uruk, about 30 km east of the modern Iraqi city of Samawah.
During the so-called Urup period, it played an important role in the process of urbanisation and state building in Mesopotamia and was one of the first cities in the region.
The development of Uruk made it the largest colony in Mesopotamia, both in population and surface area.
At its peak, around 2900 BC, between 40,000 and 80,000 people lived on 6 square kilometres of fenced off land.
The development of Uruk made it the largest colony in Mesopotamia, both in population and surface area.
09. First great empire in antiquity
Ennatum, ruler of the Sumerian city of Lagash, began in the 25th century. Century v. Chr. a military campaign for the annexation of several city-states.
Eventually he conquered all of Sumeri and extended his influence beyond the borders.
The Kingdom of Ennatum is one of the first verifiable kingdoms in history.
Sargon of Akkad, another Mesopotamian king, founded the kingdom of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great, and conquered it around 2270 BC. Chr. Sumer.
We can consider him the first brilliant emperor of Mesopotamia, and the evidence supports the facts.
It conquered all southern parts of Mesopotamia as well as Syria, Anatolia and Elam (western Iran).
The empire built in Sargona was the largest ancient empire in history until then.
Under Sargon’s regime there were numerous uprisings and it is a fact that he had the first qualified standing army in the world to protect his empire against rebellious civilians.
After his death, Mesopotamian leaders considered him a role model for about two millennia.
08. Assyria was the world’s first superpower.
Assyria owes its name to its first capital, Assyria, located on a plateau above the Tigris River in the ancient Mesopotamian civilization.
The geographical situation has put Assyria in an open position where most parties are free to plunder.
Because of these neighboring peoples, whose armies of Mitanni, Hittites and Babylon were a constant threat.
These forces defeated the Assyrians at various stages of their past and were forced to fight for their independence.
This had a reactionary effect that created an effective, well-organized and powerful army, a structure capable of withstanding constant violence, conflict and attacks from neighbours.
This made the Assyrian army powerful, and in the 8th century it had become a powerful army. Century v. Chr. it defeated most of the strong states of Mesopotamia and became one of the first superpowers of the ancient world.
07. King Tieglat Pyler 3 is considered a military genius
The Assyrian king Tieglat-Pyler III ruled from 745 to 727 BC… She is considered one of the strongest leaders of Mesopotamian civilization.
It undertook a series of complex changes to reorganize the military and restructure government bureaucracy.
He also developed Assyria’s first permanent professional army and made it the most effective military force in history.
He is also regarded as one of the most prosperous warlords in world history, having conquered many neighboring areas.
After his death, Assyria was the largest kingdom in the ancient world.
Tieglat’s brother Pyler III, Sargon II, took over the crown in 722 BC and reigned until 705 BC in Assyria.
The Assyrian Empire peaked under Sargon II.
The lathe was first made as a potter’s wheel and was made around 3500 BC. Christ, contrary to popular belief.
Although the wheel first existed in ancient Mesopotamia, in 2002 archaeologists discovered the oldest wheel, the 5150 year old Mars wheel, in the Slovenian capital Ljubljana.
The people of antiquity used the wheel as a luxury vehicle for the rich and for the agriculture, production and processing of ceramics.
It was based on tank technology and other important historical inventions.
The Chariot was the first private vehicle and was used for years for war, sports and public transport.
They made the oldest light wooden wagon construction with a curved wooden edge.
The first tank appeared around 3200 v. Chr. in Mesopotamia, and after he was used by almost every civilization, they used chariots for kings and rich private journeys.
05. The world’s first auditors were based on wedge-shaped script
People registered information about their agricultural products, including pets and plants, in the form of small clay labels.
Scientists believe that the written form of the language we use today to convey this information has evolved from this simple accounting method.
On the ceilings of the caves, the Upper Palaeolithic left traces of counting and cutting the portable sticks.
But audio tags have yielded more data, especially about the product, which they see as an important advance in storing and retrieving information.
During the Uruk Era in Mesopotamia [4000-3000 B.C.] urban settlements flourished and administrative accounting requirements increased.
In Mesopotamian culture, the production of secondary goods such as wool, clothing, metals, honey, bread, butter, alcoholic beverages, ropes, furniture, jewelry, tools, perfumes required accounting, and the number of brands used took 3300v. Chr. zu.
At the end of the Uruk-era [3500-3100 b. Chr.], the bookkeepers began to store the stamps in spherical clay envelopes called bulls.
Bulls are hollow balls of clay with a diameter of about 5 to 9 cm: They kept the stamps in the box, and then the hole was closed.
About 150 of these clay bowls were extracted from the excavations of the Mesopotamian civilization.
04. Urbanisation concept
Mesopotamia was the first to develop the concept of urbanisation.
For the first time in history, people started living in a certain place instead of taking out the garbage or hunting.
Agriculture has made it possible to feed more people and livestock who live in the same place.
One has learned how to do business, and this is how the concept of taxation came into being.
Mesopotamia was one of the first cities in the world to be built in sun-dried bricks.
Urbanisation in Mesopotamia began at the time of Uruk (4300-3100 B.C.), and massive mud houses, built around 3200 B.C., were built. Chr., were built in the region. were the largest settlement ever built in human culture.
Huge fortifications, built by King Gilgamesh, surround the city.
03. The Holy Scriptures are said to have been invented in Mesopotamia
The wedge system is also not an alphabet and contains no letters.
Instead, he used 600 to 1000 characters to write words or syllables, one of the earliest written forms used in ancient Mesopotamia.
Sumerian and Akkadian are the two most important scripts published in cuneiform, although they are more numerous than some others.
This means that today we can write quite well Chinese, Hungarian or English.
In the first phase, simple photos were used, which were soon used to write syllables as well.
It is absolutely fascinating to read the letters of others, especially when they are 4000 years old and written in such an attractive and sensitive format.
Marriage was essential in the ancient culture of Mesopotamia because it guaranteed the continuity of the family tree and social balance.
The human relationships in ancient Mesopotamia were as complex and difficult as they are now, and the emotions that connected them were part of it.
There are poems, as in Akkadyan’s work around 1750 BC. Chr. represents two couples who claim that the woman believes that the boy is having an affair with someone and that he has to convince her that she is the only one.
After a poetic discussion the couple finally reconciled and it turned out that they now feel at ease with each other.
While romantic love played a role at weddings in Mesopotamia, marriage was a legal contract between the father of the bride and the groom.
Usually this happened between two families, in accordance with the customs and standards of Mesopotamian culture.
(This is called the dowry; fathers gave the bride to the family of the groom, who paid them the highest price).
To be considered legal, the wedding ceremony had to include a banquet.
1. In order for the couple to marry legally, five stages of the marriage procedure have to be identified:
2. Payment to the parents of the bride and groom (gift and bride price); ceremony/celebration;
4. sexual intercourse between the bride and a couple believed to be virgin and pregnant in the wedding night
Mesopotamian rituals and customs may seem strange, even unfair, to the modern western mind.
The people of antiquity were no different than they are now.
Many modern marriages began with a promise and ended in grief, while many others had difficulties at first but continued throughout their lives.
01. Mesopotamian worship and witchcraft
During a symposium in Kars, entitled The Underground Secrets of Ani, scientists discovered the underworld of a city classified as an ancient place of sculpture for an ancient esoteric school in Mesopotamia.
At the height of his development, Ani competed with Constantinople, Baghdad and Cairo in size and importance.
Until the 11th. By the 18th century, the Ani had reached more than 100,000 people in the civilization of Mesopotamia.
It will become a battlefield for several rival empires, leading to its destruction and oblivion.
Today, hundreds of ancient churches, Zoroastrian temples and other buildings are scattered across the rugged desert landscape, most of them in ruins.
This was the beginning of the discovery of streams, undiscovered monastery cells, meditation rooms, large entrance halls, intricate tunnels, pits and corners beneath the remains of the ancient Armenian town of Ani.
They found a fragment of papyrus in a cell. The document was written in ancient Armenian with a strange text, the first sign that Ani’s hidden world was very old.
After some time the archaeologists collected the meaning of a strange text.
They learned that the text was an iconic message written by one monk to another.
Demonology, black magic and worship were widespread in Mesopotamia. In fact, they considered a popular demonic creature called Pazuzu (also popular in many modern horror movies) as a king demon in ancient religions.
Just like the civilization of Mesopotamia, there is another ancient civilization as old as Mesopotamia, the so-called Hindu Valley civilization.
I am just fascinated and intrigued by what I know about our ancestors, but at the same time I see how far we have strayed from them.
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